Category Archives: Formaldehyde Testing

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Testing Services (including chemicals / carcinogens like Formaldehyde) Available – Fast Onsite Results!

Formaldehyde NFPA Diamond from MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)

Formaldehyde NFPA Diamond from MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)

Dallas IAQ Green Building Clearance Testing for 804.2 Ordinance

ScanTech Technical Consulting performs indoor air quality tests including particulate matter in the air (residential and commercial) in the 0.3 – 2.5 micron and 2.5 micron + range  (PM 2.5 and PM10) in order to evaluate how clean your air is with respect to dust and other fine particles. We also offer formaldehyde and VOC levels testing due to chemicals used in the manufacture of pressed wood flooring, lumber, laminates, glues and other adhesives in your home and factory/office.

More information on formaldehyde can be found here:

https://emfsurvey.com/formaldehyde-indoor-air-pollutant-and-testing/

We can also test for VOCs, (Volatile Organic Compounds) CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) levels and O2 oxygen levels in your home to check ventilation quality. Datalogging over time available to show trends and measure the effects of HEPA filtration and electrostatic air ionization units.

Our background in organic and environmental chemistry, epidemiology, advanced microbiology, medical geology  and human physiology makes us uniquely qualified to answer your concerns regarding the invisible environment you breathe every day.

July 2016 ruling by the EPA on the emissions of formaldehyde of wood products produced or imported into the United States:

https://www.epa.gov/formaldehyde/formaldehyde-emission-standards-composite-wood-products-0#additional-resources

The following tables and information are from:

Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants

To convert concentrations in air (at 25°C) from ppm to mg/m3: mg/m3 = (ppm) × (molecular weight of the compound)/(24.45) For formaldehyde which is CH20: 1 ppm = 1.23 mg/m3.

Explanation of Formaldehyde Levels

Formaldehyde Regulatory and Health Levels Comparison

Formaldehyde Regulatory & Health Levels Comparison

AIHA ERPG–American Industrial Hygiene Association’s emergency response planning guidelines. ERPG 1 is the maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed up to one hour without experiencing other than mild transient adverse health effects or perceiving a clearly defined objectionable odor; ERPG 2 is the maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed up to one hour without experiencing or developing irreversible or other serious health effects that could impair their abilities to take protective action.

ACGIH STEL–American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists’ short-term exposure limit expressed as a time-weighted average exposure; the concentration of a substance which should not be exceeded at any time during a workday.

LC50 (Lethal Concentration50)–A calculated concentration of a chemical in air to which exposure for a specific length of time is expected to cause death in 50% of a defined experimental animal population.

NIOSH IDLH–National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health’s immediately dangerous to life or health limit; NIOSH recommended exposure limit to ensure that a worker can escape from an exposure condition that is likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from the environment.

NIOSH REL–NIOSH’s recommended exposure limit; NIOSH recommended exposure limit for an 8- or 10-h time-weighted average exposure and/or ceiling.

OSHA PEL–Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s permissible exposure limit expressed as a time-weighted average; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without adverse effect averaged over a normal 8-h workday or a 40-h workweek.

VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) Air Contaminants and Health

Reference list on the plastics, pesticides and other solvent vapors which contribute to poor air quality, allergies, illness, airborne toxicity and carcinogenic risk.

 

NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS

VOCs – can be classified by boiling points (VVOC, SVOC, VOC and POM) or by chemical structure such as aliphatic / aromatic hydrocarbons or functional R group composition such as oxygenated / halogenated hydrocarbons. Low volatility, high potency organic compounds and those with high polarity can be expected to preferentially take on the form of solid particles rather than remain in a vapor phase. Settled house dust or respirable suspended particles (such as those in the PM2.5 and PM10 size regimes) can also serve as reservoirs for both vapor phase SVOCs and POMs by adsorption. Exposure can be through inhalation, digestion or direct skin contact.

May come from a variety of sources including building materials, pesticides, air fresheners / aerosols, carpeting and linens. (including drapes)

Ozone (O3) ppm

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) ppm

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 5-35 ppb

Nitric Oxide (NO)

Carbon Monoxide (CO) 0 – 30+ ppm

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 400 – 1000 + ppm (acts as a respiratory stimulant / increases breathing rate)

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) found in electrical equipment

Aldehydes – Because of their solubility in aqueous media and high chemical activity due to the carbonyl functional group, aldehydes tend to be strong mucous membrane irritants affecting both the eyes and upper respiratory tract. This irritation tends to reflexively reduce respiratory rates which will also decrease oxygen intake. Significant examples include acrolein, (major eye / throat irritant in smoke and smog) glutaraldehyde (a biocidal used in medical, dental sterilization as well as duct cleaning and carbon-less copy paper) and acetalaldehyde which is a relatively weak irritant, though it is a proven animal carcinogen and found predominantly in combustion by-products such as cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust gas.

Formaldehyde (HCHO)  0 – 0.5 ppm

Fungicide – Pentachlorophenol, (PCP – used to prevent wood decay)

Pesticides: Organochlorines (chlordane, heptachlor – termiticides, p-dichlorobenzene for moth control)

Pesticides: Organophosphates such as dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion can cause acute neurotoxicity but dichlorvos (used in bug bombs, dog and cat flea collars) has been phased out since 1988 due to potential for animal carcinogenicity except for chlorpyrifos (used for termites, cockroaches and fleas) and diazinon which was phased out in 2000 because of potential exposures to children.

Herbicide 2,4-D risk factor for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Biocides – hypochlorites, glutaraldehyde, alcohols, o-phenylphenol, quaternary ammonium compounds, mercury (Hg) in latex based paint until 1990.

Plasticizers (phthalic acid esters) used to make vinyl more flexible and commonly found in floor coverings. Tends to leech out over time. Some evidence that it contributes to asthma.

Radon (Rn-222) picoCuries / liter

 

PARTICULATE MATTER

Allergens (dust, pollen, dust mites, pet dander)

Bacterial Endotoxins

Fungal Glucans and Mycotoxins from Mold

Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) Matter or Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particles (RSP) measured in particles / cubic foot or micrograms / cubic meter. The size regimes classified by the EPA are Fine particles PM2.5 which are 2.5 microns in diameter or less and Coarse particles PM 10 which are generally 2.5 – 10 microns in diameter.

Asbestos

Heavy Metals – Lead and Mercury in latex paint

 

HEALTH ISSUES

Respiratory / Mucous Membrane Irritation

Asthma

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Humidifier Fever

Legionnaire’s Disease

Pneumonia

Bronchitis

 

SOURCES

Candles & Incense (particularly if burned during pregnancy) can contribute to risks of childhood leukemia. Incense may produce benzo-alpha-pyrene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and sinapaldehyde. (nasal carcinogen)

Propane fueled forklifts and burnishers (Carbon Monoxide)

Control of Formaldehyde (HCHO) and VOCs in Indoor Air Quality

One of the first issues to address for pre-existing construction is proper selection of materials that have low VOCs and formaldehyde content (UF or Urea-Formaldehyde) and/or that outgas (release the noxious vapors) relatively quickly. Low emission products include:

  • Low VOC paints
  • Low VOC carpeting (though carpets tend to have inherent issues with collecting/releasing dust)
  • Other mastic (waterproofing putty) products that have low levels of 4-phenylcyclohexane (4-PC) which produces a characteristic odor
  • Pressed wood products that have low formaldehyde (HCHO) levels
  • Formaldehyde-free varnishes and lacquers
  • Softwood plywood
  • Oriented-Strand board
  • Decorative gypsum board
  • Hardwood panels
  • Pressed woods with PF (Phenol-Formaldehyde) resin release less HCHO than UF resins

You might want to AVOID:

  • Medium-Density Fiberboard (MDF) sometimes used in cabinets, furniture and doors
  • Hardwood plywood paneling
  • Particleboard
  • Pressed wood products with UF
  • UF-based Acid Cured Finishes
  • Homes insulated with UFFI (Urea-Formaldehyde Foam Insulation) though this is unlikely to be an issue
  • High humidity (keep between 40 – 50 % RH)
  • Occupying the home or property until a proper out gassing period has passed – preferably during hotter weather
Formaldehyde Emissions from variou Construction Materials

Formaldehyde Emissions from various Construction Materials

Then having an outgas period before occupation is good when possible. Preferably during hot, humid weather which tends to accelerate the exit of gaseous residues from the building materials. If you have an existing wood material that is emitting formaldehyde, then the can be treated with scavenging coatings or encapsulated with vinyl materials.

ASHRAE Ventilation Guidelines 2013

ASHRAE Ventilation Guidelines for Acceptable Air Quality – 2013

Another critical factor is having adequate ventilation, particularly during the initial outgas period. Many homes and multifamily dwellings are often built rather “tight” as a response to the desire for energy conservation and reducing moisture intrusion. If it is not a security issue, keeping the windows open even a crack on opposite sides to create a flowing cross-draft can assist out-gassing as well as opening chimney dampeners.

Factors in formaldehyde levels:

  1. Composition of building materials (formaldehyde potency in manufacture)
  2. Loading factor (amount of material in exposed surface area and volume)
  3. Material age
  4. Adequate ventilation taking into account occupancy and room size
  5. Environmental conditions
Indoor Air Exchange Rate Per Hour Table

Indoor Air Exchange Rate Per Hour Table

 

Formaldehyde Levels Indoor Air Quality

How Formaldehyde Levels Decrease Over Time

The use of sorbents (gas absorbent materials) such as activated charcoal can be used to remove relatively high molecular weight VOCs such as toluene, benzene, xylene and methyl chloroform.

For lower molecular weight (MW) materials such as formaldehyde (HCHO), ethylene, and acetaldehyde then potassium permanganate, (KMnO4) activated alumina or specially impregnated charcoal are better choices than regular activated charcoal.

Other special air cleaners may also be used – consult ScanTech for further information.

Indoor Air VOCs: Volatile Organic Compound Contaminants

Volatile organic compounds make up a very large group of chemical substances and are often sub-classified by boiling point temperature ranges which gives an idea of how likely it is to be found in liquid, solid, gaseous forms (or possibly more than one state) at various temperatures. The levels found in breathable air and how they affect air quality are strongly correlated with the boiling points. In general, the lower the boiling point, the higher the concentration that will be present in the air.

VVOC (Very Volatile Organic Compounds)   Boiling points:    less than 0 C to 100 C

VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds)  Boiling points:   50 C  – 260 C

SVOC (Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds)   Boiling points   260 C – 380 C                                        (includes many biocides)

POM (Particulate Organic Matter aka Solid Organic Compounds)  Boiling points exceeding 380C includes PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds)